So in 10/2016 I was told I met the requirements to work on a OPM contract based on a completed SSBI Investigation. I am currently searching for new employment, but was told by an FSO that my investigation is in CVS and they could not adjudicate it into a TS, and that I would have to do the entire process over. How can I get them my security file or proof of my previous investigation so that I wont have to do it all again?
You did not indicate when the SSBI was completed and if it was favorably adjudicated/you were granted eligibility based on it. It sounds like either the investigation could be out of scope; you were out of a cleared status beyond 24 months, or you had a break in employment of 24 months. If it any of these then the investigation cannot be used under reciprocity guidelines and a new investigation is required.
The investigation was completed 9/2016, so it has not even been a full year yet. The email I received said Final Favorable Determination. I never received a security clearance due to the job requirements, but I've been told that a company or agency can sponsor me based off this investigation. Is that correct?
A company does not sponsor you based on an already completed investigation, but rather because you are hired into a position that needs a clearance. Once they notify the government agency that is responsible for granting the clearance, that agency does the checks to see if there is an investigation on file that meets the requirement or whether a new one is needed.
What is CVS? Have not heard of that one before.
OPM's Central Verification System (OPM's version of JPAS)
Also, you didn’t say which agency you applied for the new position. Some IC agencies do their own BIs and will conduct their own investigation regardless. This is the issue of reciprocity that has been a major discussion over the last several decades.